April 30, 2010
We already know that Bryan Singer had to pass on X-Men First Class to focus on Jack The Giant Killer. EW now is reporting that an offer has gone out to Matthew Vaughn to direct. It sounds promising if only Vaughn hadn't previously walked away from both X3 and Thor over creative differences. He also proclaimed he would never do a studio film again after his experience making Kick-Ass independently.
at 7:06 PM
It's not surprising but Warner Bros. has announced the release of Batman 3 for July 20th 2012. I was expecting this news to come out closer to July but it's great to know it's not too far away from production. It looks like the only competition it will have is the Spider-Man reboot which releases the first week of July. Yet, there is no word if Nolan (while it's highly likely he will) will be back in the director's chair, the film's title or villain.
at 4:23 PM
April 28, 2010
I've heard this before somewhere but 20th Century Fox is looking to remake the classic Arnold Schwarzenegger action flick Commando. Now Deadline reports Fox is moving forward with director David Ayer. He is responsible for directing the passable films Harsh Times and Street Kings also writing Training Day. His work isn't great but hopefully with enough action scenes, a decent cast, budget and script it could be interesting. Producers John Davis (Predator) and Erwin Stoff (Matrix) will be also involved. This seems like another possible contender to be setup at Robert Rodriguez's Troublemaker Studios. Which recently made Predators for 20th Century Fox and seems like it could be very entertaining.
“He will put his own real-world spin on this original premise: a retired elite special forces operative sees his daughter kidnapped and is told she’ll die unless he gets on a plane and kills the rival of a nasty exiled dictator. Ayer’s protagonist will be less brawny, but more skilled in covert tactics and weaponry.”
at 9:36 PM
Warner Bros. recently announced their 20 film lineup with IMAX Superman and Batman 3 being in the group is exciting. Yet neither have been given official release dates. IESB is reporting they've been tipped off that Superman could be released for Christmas 2012. It would make sense considering the studio would be aiming for a summer release for Batman 3 in 2012 as well.
at 7:19 PM
We've been hearing more talk of Christopher Nolan's role with the Superman reboot than talk of Batman 3. While the studio hasn't revealed their plans for the third installment. They have confirmed it's included with 19 other films that will be shown on IMAX screens. It's expected Nolan will confirm his involvement with the next film during the Inception press junket or at this year's Comic-Con.
at 6:43 PM
Empire ws able to speak with actor Sharlto Copley on the future of District 9. He went on to confirm Neill Blomkamp is working on his next film which won't be related to District.
"Neil wants it and I want it. Neil's doing another film first. Then I think if everything goes according to plan we'll do the second film in about two years time. That story can go in so many different ways. There's a whole universe. I'm sure a lot of writers say that, but we actually have an entire universe."
"This thing started shooting in 2005, and before we shot the film we shot Alive In Joburg and two other shorts as part of Neil's creative development process. Those next two films actually had my character, Wikus, in them, although I wasn't called Wikus in them. So they were two parts of the development of the world and where the story was going to go and all that."
"There's a million ways you can go. Neil's actually very interested in prequels as well; he's said that a few times. We wouldn't do the traditional Hollywood version of the sequel which would just be 100 aliens fighting humans."
at 4:39 PM
Warner Bros. is egar to develop another Sherlock Holmes type franchise considering they won't be able to release film every year. They've been developing an re-imagining of Leonrdo Da Vinci into an action hero. HeatVision reports the studio has hired Marc Guggenheim (Green Lantern) to write the project's script. He's also been given the screenwriting gig for their other action project Thieves of Baghdad.
at 2:36 AM
Clash of The Titans ended up messy but still fun and racked up $390 million worldwide. Of course there had been talk of more films if it was successful. Now Deadline has word that Legendary Pictures and Warner Bros. are working on the second film bringing back Sam Worthington and other stars. The studio would be aiming for release date in Spring 2012. What's interesting is that director Louis Leterrier won't be returning for the sequel. What I loved about the film was it's look, creature design and campy nature. Hopefully with their new director they can move into a more coherent film. They should go all the way with the comedy and off-the-wall antics of their heroes. It will be interesting what other Greek myths will be used next.
at 2:14 AM
April 26, 2010
One of the most interesting R-rated comic book films is closer to finding a director. Previously there had been talk from Samuel Bayer (Elm Street) that he wanted shot at directing The Boys. The ultra-violent dark comedic comic book seems like it would someone more seasoned to handle it's wild subject matter. It sounds like Bayer has talked himself out of running with his news that Adam McKay is the favorite to helm. McKay's name might not jump out at you but he's been responsible for some of the best comedies in the last 10 years. His films include Anchorman, Talladega Nights, Step Brothers and the upcoming Other Guys. I'd love to see a comic book film from McKay since his films seem already set in their own world.
“It’s so funny, I would die to do that comic book. From what I’ve heard from the producers on the movie is that Adam McKay is doing it. He did Anchorman, I guess. The studio is really hot on him and…..let’s have the movie come out this weekend and do really well. Then we’ll see how my stock is in Hollywood.”
at 11:26 PM
It's one of the bravest statements I think I've ever heard from Ridley Scott. Recently during the press junket for Robin Hood, Scott revealed details for his Alien prequel. Now there is one statement from the director which got me very curious to what he hs up his sleeve. He went on to praise James Cameron's Aliens but says he would have to one up him with his new installments. It's bold of him to attempt to one up one of the best sequels in film history which earned Sigourney Weaver her Oscar nomination. Yet with the tools available to him Ridley Scott could be the director to rival the science fiction masterpiece. To be honest I'm not sure how you improve on the xenomorphs wiping out an entire human colony and a unit of space Marines.
“Jim raised the bar and I’ve got to jump to it,” he said with a smile. “It’s that simple. He’s not going to get away with it.”
at 7:09 PM
April 24, 2010
ComingSoon also got Kevin Feige to speak on the recent talk of Marvel Studios getting into small-budget films. The aim is to get their lesser known characters put into the spotlight and reach audiences. He relates it to the success of the first popular Marvel film Blade (1998) which was an unknown character but fit perfectly in the cinematic world.
"I saw that story the other day, and I was pleased with it," he replied. "It is something that we're looking at the ongoing cinematic universe and where to go after 'Avengers,' which we look at as a beginning and not an ending. Listen, the truth is that there are thousands and thousands of characters. Can they all be movies? No, but when you go and look again at the first two movies that started this new model era. The first one was 'Blade,' which no one knew was a Marvel character and never had his own title, was just an interesting character in 'Tomb of Dracula.' And then there was 'X-Men' which was the top-selling comic at the time for many, many years, and that was done well. So certainly we're making a conscious effort of looking at the characters, whether they have marquee value or not, are just interesting stories and can continue to define, which is what I've been trying to do, almost coming up on ten years at Marvel, to continue to push the boundaries of what a comic book movie is and a definition of a comic book movie. "
at 1:46 AM
I knew this news was coming but I wasn't expecting it until the release of Scott Pilgrim. Marvel Studios' Kevin Feige spoke to ComingSoon about the status of Ant-Man. He confirms that Edgar Wright is still involved and it could shoot next year. Feige also expects the film will be released after Avengers. He doesn't a give date but it's assumed it could be the second summer slot or in the fall/winter of 2012.
"Edgar was in L.A. last week, we sat down, and we started working on a calendar of when to get him back into it once he finishes promoting 'Scott Pilgrim,' so I think towards the end of this year, early next year we'd start looking at early prep for that, but certainly for a release date after 'The Avengers."
at 1:33 AM
HitFix was one of the many who were at the Robin Hood press junket. Ridley Scott has confirmed previous rumors that the film will be shot in 3D. He went on to say that the camera process which Avatar used has already been updated and it can now be done in two years instead of four. Even more exciting is that Scott revealed there will be two Alien prequels, yet they won't be shot back to back.
" Of course, It will be in 3D"
"It took them four years [on "Avatar"], but now we can do it in two."
"Prequels. Two films."
at 12:27 AM
April 23, 2010
It's been a while since we last heard anything on the new live-action Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles reboot. Now LatinoReview seems to have the first glimpse of the Michelangelo mask. They can't confirm this is real or even the final design that will be used in the film. Concept design or fandom passion it's still interesting and exciting. It had been reported that the new film would incorporate stuntmen in turtle suits with CGI animated mouths. Something similar to what we saw in Where The Wild Things Are.
at 9:52 PM
MarketSaw is backing up their previous quotes that the first film was only battle and the sequel will be the war. They have this new qoute from their WETA source "Oh and Pandora has a lot of shit coming its way. Break out the space marines, looks like some bugs need a stomping." The New Zealand effects house handled the construction and fabrication of the human hardware, vehicles and weapons. One of my complaints of the first film was that we didn't see enough of Earth, RDA or the Marines. It looks like the second film will make up for the lack of human involvement. Possibly giving audiences even more action and battle scenes.
For all those who are excited to see more of the world of Pandora you'll be getting you're wish. Cameron confirmed to HeroComplex that the sequel will explore Pandora's oceans. This move could help expand the planet's extensive creature/plant population. Also exploring the rest of the Alpha Centauri AB System.
"We created a broad canvas for the environment of film. That’s not just on Pandora, but throughout the Alpha Centauri AB system. And we expand out across that system and incorporate more into the story – not necessarily in the second film, but more toward a third film. I’ve already announced this, so I might as well say it: Part of my focus in the second film is in creating a different environment – a different setting within Pandora. And I’m going to be focusing on the ocean on Pandora, which will be equally rich and diverse and crazy and imaginative, but it just won’t be a rain forest. I’m not saying we won’t see what we’ve already seen; we’ll see more of that as well."
at 9:05 PM
MarketSaw, who usually has reliable contacts is reporting Neill Blomkmp is not only making the sequel to District 9. The summer sci-fi blockbuster went on to earn 4 Oscar nominations including Best Picture. With the working title District 10 it's currently in pre-production and could start shooting as early as this October. I'm not sure where this puts Blompkamp's other original sci-fi film but I'm on board either way. The film will be shooting again in South Africa which gave the film such a intense backdrop. It will also shoot in New Zealand where I expect most of the shooting will be on studio sound stages. This information comes from their source at WETA. Nothing is official yet so take this news as just rumors.
at 8:10 PM
Recently with the talk of the sequel to Avatar most have lost sight of the fantastic concept of Battle Angel Alita. The film would focus on battling young girl cyborg in a futuristic world. There has already been talk of the movie being filmed with the same motion capture and 3D technology. It doesn't seem likely with all the pre-production work done for the project it's going to get bumped for something like The Dive. I'm sure 20th Century Fox is likely to follow Cameron with any film concept. Yet with the possibility of another 3D film with a young female character in a futuristic world of cyborgs seems too good to pass up. It's hard to think Fox isn't nudging James in that direction. Considering Cameron has talked of turning Alita into it's own trilogy he'll have to start releasing these films soon. Sci-FiWire was able to talk to James and Fox's Tom Rothman about the project.
Cameron: Battle Angel, I think, is a science fiction movie that begs the question ‘What does it mean to be human?’ It takes place in a future world, a world that has cyborgs, but are you human if you have a mind, if you have a heart, if you have a soul? It’s a journey of a young girl who tries to discover herself and what she learns upon that journey.
Rothman: My preference is only that he makes another great movie for us.”We’ve seen a lot of the stuff on Battle Angel over the last year, so we’re very fired up about it. Look, James Cameron and 20th Century Fox have been in business together for over 25 years, one of the most successful partnerships in the history of the movie business, so that’s something obviously that will continue.
at 7:41 PM
It seems like studios are to dear-life to their Marvel film properties. 20th Century Fox currently is working on unnecessary reboots for Fantastic Four and Daredevil because if they don't the rights revert back to Marvel/Disney. Now it looks like Columbia is in the same boat. Vulture reports that the studio is going to have to start production on Ghost Rider 2 before November 14th or the rights will expire. They'll go on to do the sequel with or without Nicolas Cage's involvement. Considering they've already scrapped the director and lead actress from the first film. I would expect them to start from scratch leaving Cage behind as well. To put it bluntly they need a dark themed reboot without the origin for this to be successful with fans.
at 5:03 PM
More information is coming out of the Iron Man 2 press conference. This time it's focused on Black Widow and the chance she'll get her own spin-off film. We already know there are plans for a Nick Fury/SHIELD film. Now Kevin Feige has given a small glimmer of hope that we'll see more of the Russian spy's adventures. When asked if we'll see a Black Widow film Feige responded, "Definitely possible. Absolutely." When you hire someone of the caliber of Scarlett Johansson and sign them to a 9 picture deal it's assumed they will get their own film. Yet they've gone down the road with a Black Widow film before with Lionsgate and it eventually was scrapped. Hopefully audiences respond to the character in Iron Man 2 and if there is a demand for the film it will happen.
at 4:27 PM
CHUD is on a serious roll with Marvel exclusives lately. They uncovered Marvel Studios' plans to expand the Marvel universe with small-budget films. They also revealed that Captain America would feature The Invaders in the second half of the film. Kevin Feige talked to the site and it looks like they're showcasing more of the Marvel characters in Captain America. They will be including The Howling Commandos most notably Gabriel Jones with the possibly Timothy "Dum Dum" Dugan and others. This makes a lot of sense because they won't be able to return to Marvel's WWII era so they might as well feature their best known war time characters. The Howling Commandos were originally lead by Sgt. Fury who later becomes the director of SHIELD. The lineup featured Jones, Dugan, Percy Pinkerton, Captain Samuel Sawyer, Rebel Ralston, Dino Manelli and Izzy Cohen.
at 3:59 PM
Finally there seems to be movement on the Alien prequel/origin film. Ridley Scott had previously just been attached to produce but later was talked into directing. It looks like since Robin Hood is finished he is looking at possibly shooting Alien next. He talked to MTV giving some details nd even giving us an idea for the release date. "We're hoping to have it in theaters in late 2011, or maybe the best date in 2012." It sounds like things are coming together and I expect there will be more announcements soon.
"As we speak, I've got a pile of pages next to me; it's like the fourth draft," he tells MTV. "It's a work in progress, but we're not dreaming it up anymore. We know what the story is. We're now actually trying to improve the three acts and make the characters better, build it up to something [we can shoot]. It's a work in progress, but we're actually making the film. There's no question about it, we're going to make the film."
"It's set in 2085, about 30 years before Sigourney [Weaver's character Ellen Ripley]. It's fundamentally about going out to find out 'Who the hell was that Space Jockey?' The guy who was sitting in the chair in the alien vehicle — there was a giant fellow sitting in a seat on what looked to be either a piece of technology or an astronomer's chair. Remember that?"
at 3:22 AM
April 22, 2010
HeatVision reports that director Breck Eisner is in talks to helm Escape From New York. Eisner directed the remake of The Crazies and is also working on the reboot of Flash Gordon. Previously Gerard Butler had been attached to star and could still be interested in the project.
at 9:06 PM
This is actually shocking news considering how successful the remake was. It looks like plans to make Friday The 13th II are being scrapped. The rumored 3D project was expected to shoot this year but Platinum Dunes head Brad Fuller has announced on Twitter it's dead. It seems like Dunes could be looking to focus on their original films or possibly the Elm Street franchise.
at 3:28 PM
E! is reporting that Kristen Stewart has met with director Timur Bekmambetov to join the cast of Wanted 2. This seems a very good career move on the part of Kristen considering she's hurting her coolness factor with the Twilight saga. While still able to give decent performances in films like Adventureland. Some might not want this to happen but I don't think I ever thought of James McAvoy as an action star before the first film. It's expected she is replacing Angelina Jolie and I'm glad that Jolie isn't returning.
at 3:11 PM
CHUD is reporting on exciting exclusive news on the next batch of Marvel films. They reveal Marvel Studios is looking to develop small budget films for their lesser known characters. The budgets would be in the $20-40 million range which could save the studio millions gambling on unknown characters. The site goes on to name characters like Doctor Strange, Ka-Zar, Luke Cage, Dazzler and Power Pack. This could also allow the studio to shoot 2-4 movies per year. Possibly adding fall and holiday releases to their lineup.
What's great about these properties is that they span all types of superhero genres. They won't be just similar to Thor or Iron Man it could mean they can expand the Marvel universe by leaps and bounds. Marvel could end up hiring and developing new directors/actors to keep costs down. Films like District 9, Kick-Ass and Paranormal Activity have proved you don't need to pump in $100-150 million dollars into production to get a decent film. A wave of micro-budgeted comic book films could really allow filmmakers to step up and be creative without relying on expensive special effects and salaries.
at 2:45 AM
April 20, 2010
It's been reported previously that Warner Bros. has two different Wizard of Oz projects in development. Now it looks like they have one good enough to go into production. The film is a prequel with the working title Brick. ProductionWeekly announced it's director and possible star along with a new title Oz The Great & Powerful. It looks like they've been able to wrangle Sam Mendes into the director's chair since Bond 23 isn't likely to shoot anytime soon. Robert Downey Jr. could be playing the role of Oz. I'm sure it would center on the early adventures of Oz which could be very exciting and expand the mythology. The script was written by Darren Lemke who recently wrote Jack The Giant Killer. It's likely this will also be 3D film considering it's being produced by Joe Roth (Alice In Wonderland). I personally loved the sequel Return To Oz growing up, so I'm curious to see how things work out.
at 4:54 PM
Hellboy creator Mike Mignola talked to MTV on the future of the franchise. He mentions that he's unsure when we could see the final film in the trilogy. Yet he does mention that we could see fan loved character Lobster Johnson make Hellboy 3. It's unknown who will end up playing him but Bruce Campbell (Army of Darkness) has done his voice in the past.
"Lobster Johnson was mentioned as one of the 200 different things he wants to put in Hellboy 3, actually,there was a day when the discussion involved putting Lobster Johnson into the second Hellboy picture, because the Johann Krauss character turned out to be more expensive to do than anticipated. So, I got a call asking if they could put Lobster Johnson into the picture instead of Johann."
at 5:25 AM
It looks like writer/director Oren Moverman is going to try to recreate the magic of The Messenger. His new film Rampart which focuses on police corruption will star both Woody Harrelson and Ben Foster. The two gave such intense performances it will be interesting to seem work together again. Variety confirmed the previous story which was posted by ProductionWeekly. The film is an adaptation of the novel by James Ellroy and is centered on the widespread corruption in the anti-gang unit of the Los Angeles Police Department's Rampart Division in the late 1990s.
at 4:56 AM
It's rare that an American horror film's plot get's me hooked but The Butcher Bride sounds interesting enough to post something on it. ProductionWeekly has announced that Saw 5 director David Hackl will direct a film based on the novel by Vince Churchill. Hackl also worked as a production designer on Outlander, Repo! and Saw 2-4.
"Thirty years ago, a depraved assault during a Halloween costume ball shattered a young woman's mind, turning her into a brutal mass murderer. Dressed in her rival's blood-soaked wedding gown, the legend of the Butcher Bride was born. Now, decades later, everyone who enters the Silas Mansion will encounter a frightening spirit ravenous to satisfy perverse appetites. Death is the only escape. Here comes The Bride..."
at 4:37 AM
The first bit of fallout over the troubles of MGM is showing. ComingSoon has a statement from producers that production on Bond 23 has been put on hold until MGM clears up it's financial issues. This news seems like it could domino into the Hobbit being delayed yet again. Until we see a studio buy and resurrect the projects they look they could be in serious trouble. Hobbit already had been moved from it's summer shoot to the fall and has yet to be greenlit.
at 4:15 AM
Greg Mottola the director behind Superbad and Adventureland is getting another high profile gig thanks to Paramount Pictures. RiskyBusiness reports the studio hs hired Mottola to write and direct a film based on the novel Important Artifacts by Leanne Shapton. His upcoming sci-fi action comedy Paul starring Simon Pegg and Nick Frost is currently in post-production.
Brad Pitt and Natalie Portman will star in the movie.
at 4:01 AM
Previously Sam Jackson had played coy when interviewed about his status in the Marvel universe. Giving the impression he might not even return but now is dishing out some information. He talked to both IESB and MTV revealing while he won't be in Thor he will be in Captain America. Hopefully Fury will be thawing Cap out before the end of the movie. He also will be featured in the Avengers which was assumed is bigger role for the character. That film will start production in February and it gives me the thought that Marvel Studios could be shooting another film in the summer.
at 3:33 AM
April 19, 2010
I'm not sure if Ellen Ripley is considered a superhero but she should be classified as such. After watching Kick-Ass for the third time today it finally sunk in how good the Hit-Girl character is. Being an homage to Matilda from The Professional with the street smarts of Taxi Driver's Iris mixed with Matrix level fighting/shooting skills. This heroine sums up everything that makes female superheroes work. Taking her age out of the equation it's interesting to look at her characteristics. While having the intensity of Trinity she still has the strong emotions and duty of Sarah Connor and Ripley. I think what Millar, Jane Goldman and Matthew Vaughn have done is given us the best female comic hero on film. It's also one of the first compelling female roles I've seen in an action film in years.
*Do you think Hit-Girl is a step in the right direction for superhero films?
at 2:02 AM
Brian Bendis is one of the biggest names in comics these days. Creating such interesting Marvel universe sagas as Siege and Secret Invasion. He's now working on a new creator owned series with Alex Maleev and it seems like it could make a decent film franchise. Similar to Mark Millar's creator owned series Kick-Ass and the upcoming Nemesis. The book seems to be very violent and gritty even throwing in breaking the fourth wall into the mix. The series titled Scarlet "centers on a woman who is pushed to the edge by the fractured modern world" but fights back, starting a revolution in the process." I'm excited to actually see how the story turns out since it reminds me of a mix between V For Vendetta and Deadpool.
at 1:45 AM
Most remember the great faux trailers that were attached to Grindhouse. Machete is getting the full feature treatment. There was also one put together for Canadian theaters. Hobo With A Shotgun was almost forgotten but now it's actually filming with legend Rutger Hauer (Bladerunner, Batman Begins) starring as the hobo.
at 1:24 AM
April 17, 2010
We haven't heard much on either Jonah Hex or Machete since Comic-Con last summer. There is finally talk of a trailer for Jonah Hex which will hit theaters with Elm Street. Warner Bros. also states there is no delay and the film will still be released as planned on June 18th. I'm shocked they haven't released the trailer months ago. Combined with production troubles and re-shoots it doesn't look good for the comic book Western.
With Predators coming out in July I was shocked that Robert Rodriguez didn't mention anything on Machete during it's promotion during SXSW. Deadline confirms Fox will release the film on September 3rd.
at 12:27 AM
I don't think I've enjoyed myself this much since The Dark Knight and I wasn't wowed by action scenes like these since Kill Bill. Of course the film comes off as a parody of Spider-Man but it's ultra-violent themes makes this more similar to the world of Blade. I loved this film and it seems like the type of film that gets better from each additional viewing. I expect it's going to get more backlash for Hit-Girl but this film's super stylistic setting screams Tarantino and sometimes if for comedic effect. I'm highly recommending this film and I can't wait for them to start work on the sequel. It's expected it will be in comic form this summer.
at 12:02 AM
April 16, 2010
It looks like Joss Whedon and Edgar Wright spent some time together this week. He alerted everyone by Twitter and even joked "speculation commence". Of course our thoughts quickly go to the involvement of Ant-Man in the Avengers. When I heard Joss was in the running for Avengers and even re-working the script I figured Edgar and Ant-Man could be involved. They could have just talked Buffy for all we know. However, I believe if they did talk business it would be casting or at least their shortlist for Dr. Hank Pym and Janet. It's expected that Ant-Man could be the next Marvel Studios franchise and the first Disney/Marvel project.
at 11:47 PM
April 15, 2010
It seems like Marvel Studios is really getting their money's worth with Joss Whedon. There is already talk of Whedon directing and co-writing Avengers. Now there is word from Pajiba that he's also going to put finishing touches on the Captain America script.
at 12:49 PM
ForcesofGeek is reporting that their reliable source believes Olivia Munn's cameo in Iron Man 2 will be Janet Van Dyne, better known as the Wasp. The blog is very new to me so I can't say I know they have a good track record with stories like this. Yet they did come up with a reasonable character from the Marvel universe. Plus I do expect Marvel to be casting these smaller roles with up and coming talent. I'm sure we'll find out this out when the film rolls out on in May.
at 1:34 AM
April 14, 2010
I really thought I would never have to write about Zac Efron but he seems to be branching out. When he created his production company with Warner Bros. I was curious what type of films they would be making? Now we have some idea as HeatVision reports on their first project. Efron and his company bought the rights to the Swedish thriller Snabba Cash. The film focuses on three different stories within a drug/crime organization. I can't say I've seen the original yet but the trailer looks very promising. Of course the project is going to star Efron.
at 10:37 PM
LatinoReview has received official word from Disney that French actress Astrid Bergès-Frisbey has joined Pirates of The Caribbean: On Stranger Tales. The interesting aspect is that she'll be playing a mermaid. I hope this is just to explore the sailor lore and not to shove in more special effects for the sake of it.
at 10:22 PM